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Biological Rhythms, Metabolism and Function in Feathered Dinosaurs; As Determined by Biostatistics | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-6180

Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics
Open Access

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Research Article

Biological Rhythms, Metabolism and Function in Feathered Dinosaurs; As Determined by Biostatistics

Clifford Qualls1, Spencer G Lucas2, Mike Spilde3 and Otto Appenzeller2,4*

1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM 87131, USA

2New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104, USA

3Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA

4New Mexico Health Enhancement and Marathon clinics Research Foundation, Albuquerque NM 87122, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Appenzeller O
New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Albuquerque
New Mexico 87104, USA
Tel: +1 505-841-2800
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 10, 2016; Accepyed date: December 09, 2016; Published date: December 12, 2016

Citation: Qualls C, Lucas SG, Spilde M, Appenzeller O (2016) Biological Rhythms, Metabolism and Function in Feathered Dinosaurs; As Determined by Biostatistics. J Biom Biostat 7:326. doi: 10.4172/2155-6180.1000326

Copyright: © 2016 Qualls C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


        Rotation of the earth around the sun paces daily biologic rhythms (circadian rhythms). Additional rhythms spanning days are mutidien. The energy for biologic rhythms is provided by metabolism.     We measured biologic rhythms in dinosaur’s fossilized feather and rachis imprints and in contemporaneous wild turkey tail-feather.         Daily growth lines were measured in 9 photographs of dinosaur feather-imprints. They were from an enantiornithine bird (Mesozoic 245-265 million years), from a troodontid theropod (Cretaceous ~160 million years) and from Sinosauropteryx (Early Cretaceous; ~125 million years; rachis only). We measured 27 growth lines and 39 rachis intervals in the turkey feather. We compared our measurements in the dinosaurs to those in the modern feather. We used biometrics to analyze the measurements, we found circadian and multidien rhythms in all feathers. The gliding Microraptor had large feathers. In contrast, the feathered dinosaurs had smaller feathers. Wild turkey feathers were of intermediate size.        We conclude, based on measurements and statistically identified spectral peaks, that circadian and multidien rhythms are present in feather imprints of dinosaurs and in extant birds similar to those described in mammals. Feather growth is related to metabolism, to function and to body mass; this suggests a similar metabolism in feathered dinosaurs and modern birds.