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ISSN: 2161-0487

Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy
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Review Article

Breathing Focused Mind-Body Approach for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Eriko Kobayashi-Suzuki*, Yoshiyuki Tachibana, Makiko Okuyama and Takashi Igarashi

National Medical Center for Children and Mothers, Tokyo, Japan

Corresponding Author:
Eriko Kobayashi-Suzuki
Division of Maternal-Child Psychiatry
Department of Psychosocial Medicine
National Medical Center for Children and Mothers. 2-10-1 Okura
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan
Tel: 81-3-3416-0181
E-mail : [email protected]

Received date: March 26, 2014; Accepted date: April 24, 2014; Published date: May 01, 2014

Citation: Kobayashi-Suzuki E, Tachibana Y, Okuyama M, Igarashi T (2014) Breathing Focused Mind-Body Approach for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. J Psychol Psychother 4:142. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000142

Copyright: © 2014 Kobayashi-Suzuki E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: Numerous forms of breathing techniques have been frequently incorporated in treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) for children and adolescents. Whereas major treatment approach such as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) has incorporated breathing techniques as an auxiliary function to teach relaxation skills, mind-body approach has utilized different kinds of breathing techniques as primary components of intervention. Mind-body approach has been used as an alternative to TF-CBT for both adults and children, and found to be effective in varying degree for adult PTSD. Most of the systematic review on child PTSD has been conducted on TF-CBT and a systematic review on mind-body approach has been limited to adults PTSD. Hence we decided to conduct a systematic review of published articles on PTSD treatment using mind-body approach with breathing as a primary component for children and adolescents.

Methods: We searched PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and PubMed for eligible articles in addition to hand searching references of the related articles. Interventions that incorporate breathing techniques but do not identify such techniques as a primary component (e.g., TF-CBT) were excluded from the search.

Results: The review found only one Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT), two open trials, and one randomized comparative trial. No quantitative analysis was conducted due to insufficient numbers of studies and statistical heterogeneity. Hence data was synthesized qualitatively.

Conclusions: There is a relative lack of research in breathing techniques and mind-body approach on child and adolescent PTSD. Preliminary data suggest that mind-body approach may be effective for high school students traumatized by war and political conflict, and may be as effective as exposure treatment for children and adolescents traumatized by war and tsunami. Age is a potential factor impacting the efficacy of the approach but is yet to be researched further. Future research is necessary for more controlled trials and large-scale comparison trials, but mind-body approach can be a promising alternative to TF-CBT.

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