alexa Cancer Immunotherapy: Targeting Checkpoint Blockade | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2169-0111

Advancements in Genetic Engineering
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Review Article

Cancer Immunotherapy: Targeting Checkpoint Blockade

Arvind Chhabra*
Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA
Corresponding Author : Arvind Chhabra
Department of Medicine
University of Connecticut Health Center
Farmington, Connecticut, USA
Tel: 860-679-1447
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 29, 2015; Accepted March 13, 2015; Published March 15, 2015
Citation: Chhabra A (2015) Cancer Immunotherapy: Targeting Checkpoint Blockade. Adv Genet Eng 3:118. doi: 10.4172/2169-0111.1000118
Copyright: © 2015 Chhabra A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Immune system is developed in such a way that it can efficiently recognize, target and eliminate foreign pathogens effectively, but leave the host self-architecture intact. During the developmental process self-reactive high avidity immune effectors are deleted, and several other mechanisms are put in place to ensure that the self-reactive low avidity immune effectors cannot generate harmful autoimmune reactions. T cells are critical immune effectors of a protective antigen specific adaptive immune response. While engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) critical for the development of antigen specific T cell response, development of effector function in T cells is fine tuned by positive factors, the co-stimulatory factors, and negative factors, the co-inhibitory receptors. While role of co- stimulation was initially considered critical for the generation of an optimum protective immune response, it is well established that the co-inhibitory molecules play equally essential role in this process. Approaches targeting co- inhibitory receptor mediated immune blockade mechanisms have recently been shown to produce remarkable protective responses in cancer patients. We will here take a brief account of the recent advances towards development of immune checkpoint blockade strategies in cancer immunotherapy.

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