alexa Cardiac Ischemia and Angina Pectoris without Flow-Limit

Cardiovascular Therapy: Open Access
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Case Report

Cardiac Ischemia and Angina Pectoris without Flow-Limiting Coronary Artery Disease (Coronary Syndrome X)

Giuseppe Cocco1*, Paul Jerie2 and Philipp Amiet3

1Medical Practice, Cardiology, Rheinfelden, Switzerland

2Departament of Cardiology, University of Prague, Switzerland

3Department of Medicine, University of Basle, Switzerland

*Corresponding Author:
MGiuseppe Cocco
Medical Practice, Cardiology
Rheinfelden, Switzerland
Tel: 061 83145 55
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 16, 2015; Accepted date: December 31, 2015; Published date: January 12, 2016

Citation: Cocco G, Jerie P, Amiet P (2016) Cardiac Ischemia and Angina Pectoris without Flow-Limiting Coronary Artery Disease (Coronary Syndrome X).  Cardiovasc Ther 1:101.

Copyright: © 2016 Cocco G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Coronary ischemic disease represents an important clinical problem worldwide. Each year millions of people (mostly women) with AP by visual analysis of biplane coronarography are found to have normal coronary arteries. However, as demonstrated from autoptic and ultrasound intravascular studies in vivo it would be more appropriate to say that coronarography did not detect obstructive or flow-limiting epicardial coronary artery disease. The pathology arises from a complex pathology in the microcoronary vessels and is usually called cardiac X syndrome. The paper describes the etiology and pathogenies of this pathology. Cardiac X syndrome is not a benign pathology because it induces angina pectoris and myocardial ischemia. Given the association between this pathology and consequent downstream morbidity, it seems logical to assess long-term cardiovascular outcomes by appropriate analysis. Drugs used in coronary artery disease are prescribed in cardiac X syndrome, but we lack data from double-blind randomized trials. Specific research to target interventions against this cardiac pathology CSX would be necessary.


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