alexa Cell - to Species-Level Diversity of Epigenetic Setting for Androgen Receptor Expression in Mammals
ISSN: 2157-7536

Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science
Open Access

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Review Article

Cell - to Species-Level Diversity of Epigenetic Setting for Androgen Receptor Expression in Mammals

Masahiro Uesaka and Takuya Imamura*

Laboratory for Biodiversity, Global COE program, Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Japan

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Takuya Imamura, PhD
DVM, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
Fax: +81-75-753-4261
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: August 11, 2011; Accepted Date: October 03, 2011; Published Date: October 05, 2011

Citation: Uesaka M, Imamura T (2011) Cell - to Species-Level Diversity of Epigenetic Setting for Androgen Receptor Expression in Mammals. J Steroids Hormon Sci S2:004. doi: 10.4172/2157-7536.S2-004

Copyright: © 2011 Uesaka M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

During mammalian development, androgen circulates throughout the body and masculinizes several tissues through endocrinological pathways by binding androgen receptor (AR). At the onset of brain masculinization/defeminization, the androgen-AR system functions in a region-specific manner and, even in adulthood, this system affects the transcription of a certain set of genes. The androgen-AR system, together with several coregulators such as histone modifiers, epigenetically regulates many kinds of genes to express the phenotype of a cell according to the cell’s own androgensensitivity as well as the dose of androgen to which it is exposed. Long-range DNA-protein interactions via chromatin looping structures also set up epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that affect the androgen responsiveness. Importantly, the androgen-AR system regulates the transcription of AR itself. For such autoregulation, there are a variety of ciselements within the coding sequences as well as in the regulatory region of AR, including multiple androgen response elements. We found that some of these cis-elements diverged across species: among them there are several primatespecific regions and rodent-specific regions including a short interspersed element, called B2 SINE, as shown by comparisons between primates and rodents. These data suggest that the gain and/or loss of cis-elements by deletion, insertion and mutation determines the species-specific regulation of AR transcription. Differences in the sequences of AR/Ar regulatory regions may contribute to species-specific transcription regulation in genetic and epigenetic manners. Studies focusing on the biodiversity of the AR regulatory region are important for understanding the diversity of the epigenetic setting determining the responsiveness of cells to androgen.

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