Challenge of Industrial High-load One-point Hardness and of Depth Sensing ModulusKaupp G*
University of Oldenburg, Germany
- *Corresponding Author:
- Gerd Kaupp
University of Oldenburg, Organic Chemistry I
PO Box 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany
Tel: +49 4486/8386
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: June 09, 2017; Accepted Date: June 17, 2017; Published Date: June 27, 2017
Citation: Kaupp G (2017) Challenge of Industrial High-load One-point Hardness and of Depth Sensing Modulus. J Material Sci Eng 6: 348. doi: 10.4172/2169-0022.1000348
Copyright: © 2017 Kaupp G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The physics of industrial single-point force indentation hardness measurements (Vickers, Knoop, Brinell, Rockwell, Shore, Leeb, and others) is compared with the depth-sensing nano, micro, and macro instrumental hardness technique that provides several further mechanical parameters, when using the correct force/depth curves exponent 3/2 on the depth of the loading curves. Only the latter reveal phase change onset with transition energy, and temperaturedependent activation energy, which provides important information for applications of all types of solids, but is not considered in the ISO or ASTM standards. Furthermore, the high-load one-point techniques leave the inevitably even stronger and more diverse consecutive phase-transformations undetected, so that the properties of pristine materials are not obtained. But materials are mostly not (continuously) applied under so high load, which must lead to severe misinterpretations. The dilemma of ISO or ASTM standards violating the basic energy law, the dimensional law, and denying the occurrence of phase changes under load is demonstrated with the physics of depth-sensing indentations. Transformation of iterated ISO-hardness and finite element simulated hardness to physical hardness is exemplified. The one-point techniques remain important for industry, but they must be complemented by physical hardness with detection of the phase transformation onset sequences for the reliability of their results. The elastic modulus EISO from unloading curves as hitherto unduly called "Young's" modulus has nothing in common with unidirectional Young's modulus according to Hook's law, because the skew tip faces collect contributions from all crystal faces including shear moduli, while iteration fit is to Young's modulus of a standard. Unphysical and also physically corrected multidirectional indentation moduli mixtures of mostly anisotropic materials and there from deduced mechanical parameters have no physical basis and none of these should be used any more. A possible solution of this dilemma might be the use of indentation-Ephys and bulk moduli K from hydrostatic compression measurements. The reasons for obeying physical laws in the mechanics of materials are stressed.