Chemical and Thermodynamic Processes in Clay Brick Firing Technologies and Associated Atmospheric Emissions Metrics-A Review
Akinshipe O* and Kornelius G
University of Pretoria, Environmental Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering, South Africa
- *Corresponding Author:
- Oladapo Akinshipe
University of Pretoria, Environmental
Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering
Tel: +270124203111, +270123465102
Received date: May 07, 2017; Accepted date: May 19, 2017; Published date: May 27, 2017
Citation: Akinshipe O, Kornelius G (2017) Chemical and Thermodynamic Processes in Clay Brick Firing Technologies and Associated Atmospheric Emissions Metrics-A Review. J Pollut Eff Cont 5:190. doi: 10.4176/2375-4397.1000190
Copyright: © 2017 Akinshipe O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Atmospheric emissions arising from brick manufacturing installations are a significant source of atmospheric pollution globally. Brick kiln input and firing variables, chemical reactions and thermodynamic processes occurring within the firing chamber of brick kilns, impact on the outcome of fired bricks, as well as the quantity and nature of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere. A review of these chemical reactions and thermodynamic processes, as well as their atmospheric emissions and associated process metrics, was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of emission metrics to these reactions and processes occurring at a specific period within the firing chamber. Brick kiln emission concentrations and process metrics exhibit wide ranges of data variability during a firing cycle, implying that they are sensitive to these chemical reactions and thermodynamic processes. Kiln emission control efforts aimed at modifying the combustion and firing process in order to alter the chemical reactions and thermodynamic processes in a way that will result in the release of lower quantity of emissions, are proffered. Kiln technologies were ranked from lowest to highest potential for atmospheric pollution based on available emission metrics as follows: Vertical shaft<Zig-zag<US coal-fired<Clamp<Fixed chimney Bull’s trench<Tunnel<Down draft<Bull’s trench.