Childhood Trauma and Resilience: Vulnerabilities to Develop Crack/Cocaine DependenceAnne Orgler Sordi1*, Simone Hauck1, Helen Laitano1, Silvia Halpern1, Silvia Schuch1, Felix Kessler1,2, Lisia Von Diemen1, Joana Narvaez1, Luciano SP Guimarães3 and Flávio Pechansky1,2
1Center for Drug and Alcohol Research, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA). Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Rua Prof. Álvaro Alvim 400, CEP 90420-020, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
- *Corresponding Author:
- Anne Orgler Sordi
Center for Drug and Alcohol Research
Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA)
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)
Rua Prof. Álvaro Alvim 400, CEP 90420-020
Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Tel: (813) 931-3345
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: October 20, 2015; Accepted date: November 24, 2015; Published date: November 27, 2015
Citation: Sordi AO, Hauck S, Laitano H, Halpern S, Schuch S, et al. (2015) Childhood Trauma and Resilience: Vulnerabilities to Develop Crack/Cocaine Dependence. J Alcohol Drug Depend 3:227. doi:10.4172/2329-6488.1000227
Copyright: © 2015 Sordi AO, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Crack cocaine dependence is a health problem of epidemic proportions and there is lack of evidence concerning vulnerability factors that could lead to crack cocaine use. The aim of this study is to investigate characteristics of resilience in a group of crack cocaine users and its association with childhood trauma and PTSD.
Method: This is a case-control study in which we evaluated 218 crack cocaine inpatients users and 215 healthy controls, recruited from the capital city of the southern State of Brazil. Childhood Trauma was evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; resilience was evaluated with the Resilience Scale; and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was evaluated with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview.
Results: Childhood trauma was significantly higher among crack cocaine users in all trauma domains (p<0.001), except for sexual abuse. Most resilience scores was lower among crack cocaine users (p<0.01). Having higher scores of childhood trauma and lower scores of resilience increase the odds to become a crack cocaine user (p<0.001), despite the diagnosis of PTSD.
Discussion: Childhood trauma appears to be a risk factor to become a crack cocaine user while resilience features may be a protection factor. To understand factors of vulnerabilities in this population is important for the development of more efficacious treatment and preventive strategies.