Chlorhexidine as an Antimicrobial Agent in Dentistry A Review
Background: Over the years chlorhexidine has been used in the dental practice as an excellent antiplaque agent. Chlorhexidine not only exhibits special property of substantivity, it also possesses a broad antimicrobial spectrum which makes its use in wide variety of oral disorders. Virtually all disciplines of dentistry make use of this material in different formulations like mouth wash, gel, spray, varnish, and restorative material etc. Objectives: To analyse and discuss the use of chlorhexidine not only as antiplaque agent but also an antimicrobial agent. Search methods: The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane OralHealth Group Trials Register (to 15 Sep 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE via OVID (1971 to sept 2015) and EMBASE via OVID (1971 to sep 2015). Selection of article restricted to English language. Analysis: All the available literature is pooled and segregated with respect to dose, frequency,mechanism of action . side effects of chlorhexidine and based on its antimicrobial spectrum further analysed as antibacterial, antiviral and antifunfal and antiprotozoal property accordingly its role in respective oral disorders and their management in different formulation such as mouth wash, spray, gel, cements and varnish etc Conclusion: Analysis giving some insights into its definitive role as an antibacterial agent further supported by a large number of studies clearly highlighting its role as antiplaque agent, as a root canal irrigant, prevention of caries by suppression of S. mutans, prevention of sceondary infection in apthous ulcers and in alveolar osteitis. Showing promisng results as an antifungal agent ascertained by its role in the management of denture stomatatis and implant associated biofilms. Antiprotozoal role as ascertained in the management of ANUG. Though its long term use has been restricted for its known side effects, a new formulation with antidisclouration system has shown promising results. Research results indicated that chlorhexidine doesn’t alter the microbial flora and the research is inadequate to prove its carcinogenicity, available data indicates chlorhexidine is not a carcinogen.