Chloride and its Clinical Implications in Todays Clinical Practice: Not an Orphan Electrolyte
Middletown Medical PC, 111, Maltese Drive, Middletown NY, USA; Consultant at Orange Regional Medical Center, NY, USA; Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor (Internal Medicine and Nephrology) at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Narender Goel
Middletown Medical PC, 111
Maltese Drive, Middletown NY-10940, USA
Tel: +1 845-342-4774
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E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: October 01, 2015 Accepted Date: October 29, 2015 Published Date: November 05, 2015
Citation: Goel N (2015) Chloride and its Clinical Implications in Today’s Clinical Practice: Not an Orphan Electrolyte. J Nephrol Ther 5:223. doi:10.4172/2161-0959.1000223
Copyright: © 2015 Goel N. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Though chloride is the predominant extracellular anion, it is mostly seen just as an anion accompanying sodium and hardly receives attention in textbooks. But independent evaluation of serum chloride may unearth several clinical and acid-base disorders. It is used in formulas to estimate serum anion gap, urine anion gap, and strong ion difference (Stewart method). Several critical functions of a cell such as maintenance of cell volume, neutralization of H+ in lysosomal vesicles, epithelial fluid transport, change in cell membrane potential and ligand-gated transmission in the post-synaptic membrane utilize chloride channels. In addition, chloride forms an integral part of anion exchanger proteins coded by SLC26A gene family. Chloride is an essential component of intravenous fluids used in day-to-day clinical practice. The role and contribution of chloride rich fluids and resulting acidosis in causing inferior outcomes in sepsis, renal vasoconstriction, and acute kidney injury has been debated. Numerous genetic diseases are known to be related with chloride channels and proteins abnormalities. In the following review, I would like to bring much needed attention towards importance of chloride in human physiology. The following hypothetical clinical case will be just a spark for fiery chloride.