Cholelithiasis - Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Etiopathogenic Aspects: Up-to-DateVladimir Hotineanu, Viorel Moraru*, Petru Bujor and Sergiu Bujor
2nd Department of Surgery, Republic Clinic Hospital, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Nicolae Testemitanu”, Kishinev, Republic of Moldova, Romania
- *Corresponding Author:
- Viorel Moraru, MD, PhD
Assoc. Prof. of Surgery, 2nd Department of Surgery
Republic Clinic Hospital, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Nicolae Testemiţanu”
Kishinev, Str. Bogdan Voievod, No 7, ap. 189
2068, Kishinev, Republic of Moldova, Romania
Tel: +37 (0) 3 69 05 37 81
Fax: +37 (0) 3 22 80 63 34
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: March 02, 2014; Accepted Date: March 21, 2014; Published Date: September 20, 2014
Citation: Hotineanu V, Moraru V, Bujor P, Bujor S. Cholelithiasis-Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Etiopathogenic Aspects: Up-to-Date. Journal of Surgery [Jurnalul de chirurgie] 2014; 10(2):104-108 doi: 10.7438/1584-9341-10-2-2
Copyright: © 2014 Hotineanu V, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Gallstone disease is the most common gastrointestinal disorder. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine the prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Gallstone disease is considered a surgical disease since only cholecystectomy is capable of definitively curing the disease. Cholecystectomy is a limited indicator for the prevalence of gallbladder stones, as the perceived threshold for surgery and patient access to care differ markedly. Most patients with gallstones are asymptomatic and the risk of developing symptoms or complications related to gallstones is approximately 1-4% per year. The common complications of gallstones include biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, common bile duct stones, and gallstone pancreatitis. Although this disease has a low mortality rate, its economic and health impact is significant due to its high morbidity. Many risk factors for gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The recognized risk factors of gallbladder stones for females cannot be extrapolated to men, and this demonstrates the polymorphic character of the etiopathogeny of cholelithiasis and requires further specification. Therefore, there is need for more knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of gallstone disease in order to better identify therapeutic strategies.