Chronic Diseases Caused by Chronic Inflammation Require Chronic Treatment: Anti-inflammatory Role of Dietary Spices
|Sahdeo Prasad and Bharat B. Aggarwal*|
|Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA|
|Corresponding Author :||Bharat B. Aggarwal, Ph.D.
Professor of Cancer Medicine (Biochemistry)
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
1901 East Road, Unit1950; Houston TX 77054, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: May 23, 2014; Accepted:July 18, 2014; Published: July 25, 2014|
|Citation: Prasad S, Aggarwal BB (2014) Chronic Diseases Caused by Chronic Inflammation Require Chronic Treatment: Anti-inflammatory Role of Dietary Spices. J Clin Cell Immunol 5:238. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000238|
|Copyright: © 2014 Prasad S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Noncommunicable chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and pulmonary, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases are becoming the leading cause of death throughout the world. Unhealthy diet, smoking, lack of exercise, stress, radiation exposure, and environmental pollution are among the common causes of chronic diseases. Most of these risk factors are closely linked to chronic inflammation, which leads to the development of various chronic diseases. Diets high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, fiber, and certain spices have been shown to suppress chronic inflammation and prevent the development of chronic diseases. In this review we discuss the evidence for the molecular basis of inflammation and how inflammation mediates most chronic diseases. We also present clinical and experimental models showing the molecular effects of selected spices and spice-derived nutraceuticals such as cardamonin, curcumin, capsaicin, gingerol, thymoquinone, and piperine on these inflammatory pathways and the potential role of nutraceuticals in preventing chronic diseases.