Chronic Low Level Arsenic Exposure Inflicts Pulmonary and Systemic InflammationDona Sinha1*, Bidisha Mukherjee2, Banani Bindhani2, Kaustav Dutta1, Hirak Saha2, Priyanka Prasad1 and Manas Ranjan Ray2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dona Sinha, Ph.D
Senior Scientific Officer Gr-II
Receptor Biology and Tumor Metastasis
Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700026, India
Tel: 91-33-2476-5101/02/22 extn 327
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: January 21, 2014; Accepted date: February 19, 2014; Published date: February 24, 2014
Citation: Sinha D, Mukherjee B, Bindhani B, Dutta K, Saha H, et al. (2014) Chronic Low Level Arsenic Exposure Inflicts Pulmonary and Systemic Inflammation. J Cancer Sci Ther 6:062-069. doi:10.4172/1948-5956.1000250
Copyright: © 2014 Sinha D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: To examine whether chronic low level arsenic (As) exposure (11-50 μg/L) from drinking water elicits inflammation and oxidative stress.
Methods: Never-smoking pre-menopausal women (n=267) from Nadia district, West Bengal, India, were enrolled into two groups (i) control (n=122, median age 39 yr) from villages with <10 μg/L of As in groudwater, and (ii) exposed (n=145, median age 38 yr) from the same district where the groundwater As was 11-50 μg/L. As in water was measured by atomic absorption spectrophtometry with vapour generation assembly. Sputum cytology and hematology were done by standard procedures. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6, 8, 10, 12 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma and cortisol in serum. Serum nitric oxide (NO) was measured colorimetrically, myleperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase by spectrophotometry, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow cytometry, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by immunocytochemistry.
Results: As level in groundwater was higher in endemic areas (28.32 ± 13.51 vs. 2.72 ± 1.18, p<0.05), and exposed women had lower hemoglobin, leukocyte and erythrocyte levels but elevated platelet count than control and their sputum contained increased number of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells. In addition, they had elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-12, CRP, cortisol and NO but depleted level of IL-10 with excess generation of ROS and increased expression of iNOS in the airways. Neutrophils of As-exposed subjects had elevated levels of MPO and elastase. After controlling education and family income as potential confounders, the rise in pro-inflammatory mediators in blood and excess generation of ROS in the airways were positively associated with as levels in ground water.
Conclusion: Drinking of water contaminated with low level of as for long causes pulmonary and systemic inflammation and generates excess ROS in the airways.