alexa Circulating Endothelial Progenitors and Bone Marrow Der
ISSN: 2572-4916

Journal of Bone Research
Open Access

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Review Article

Circulating Endothelial Progenitors and Bone Marrow Derived Cells as Biomarkers for Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Kim Chi Bui1, Jonathan Kirzner2,3, Aswathi Ann George2,3, Vandana Batra4, Kimberly J. Payne5, Hisham Abdel-Azim1,2,3*

1 Department of Pediatrics, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

2 Division of Hematology, Oncology and Blood & Marrow Transplantation, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3 Flow Cytometry/Sorting Lab, The Saban Research Institute, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

4 Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA

5 Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Hisham Abdel-Azim
Children’s Hospital Los Angeles 4650 Sunset Blvd
MS#62, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
Tel: 3233615664
Fax: 3233618193
E-mail: [email protected]

Received November 19, 2013; Accepted December 18, 2013; Published January 17, 2014

Citation: Bui KC, Kirzner J, George AA, Batra V, Payne KJ, et al. (2014) Circulating Endothelial Progenitors and Bone Marrow Derived Cells as Biomarkers for Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. J Bone Marrow Res 2:135. doi:10.4172/2329-8820.1000135

Copyright: © 2014 Bui KC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as neonatal chronic lung disease, is a multifactorial disease and its pathogenesis starts even before birth. Animal models of BPD and the study of infants with BPD suggest that impaired lung vascular development leads to the failure of alveolar development and strategies that promote vascular development result in improved aralveolization of the lung. Since 1997 when Asahara identified endothelial cell progenitors (EPCs) as blood cells having the ability to contribute to postnatal vasculogenesis, several studies have attempted to elucidate the role of EPCs in neonatal lung development and lung injury and repair. This review outlines the progress in defining early EPCs (believed to be of hematopoietic origin) and late EPCs or true EPCs (believed to be of endothelial origin) through the use of cell culture assays and flow cytometric characterization. Both animal and human studies have attempted to correlate the frequency of these specific populations with susceptibility to BPD. Animal studies use hyperoxia or endotoxininduced lung injury as a model of BPD. Human studies use frequencies of specific cell populations as a prognostic index of BPD. Conflicting outcomes are likely the result of a lack of consistent definitions. Recently, there is increasing evidence that blood and bone marrow-derived stem cells exert a beneficial effect in models of chronic lung injury, not so much by engraftment and differentiation, but by a paracrine effect on the existing lung progenitor cells.


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