Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides Involved in Major Depression: A Multi-Neurotransmitter System
- *Corresponding Author:
- Felix-Martin Werner
Euro Akademie Pößneck, Pößneck
Germany and Institute of Neuroscience of Castilla and León (INCYL)
Laboratory 14, Salamanca, Spain
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: Mar 06, 2014; Accepted Date: June 06, 2014; Published Date: June 08, 2014
Citation: Werner FM, Covenas R (2014) Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides Involved in Major Depression: A Multi-Neurotransmitter System. J Cytol Histol 5:253. doi: 10.4172/2157-7099.1000253
Copyright: © 2014 Werner, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In major depression, in both midbrain and hippocampus a hypoactivity of monoamines (serotonin, noradrenalin, dopamine) and a hypoactivity of presynaptic inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate) occurs. Serotonin hypoactivity, which is partly explained by polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene, could be as well due to an enhanced presynaptic inhibition carried out by glutaminergic neurons via m5Glu receptors. Noradrenalin hypoactivity is also due to an enhanced presynaptic inhibition exerted, via GABAB receptors, by GABAergic neurons. We derived neural networks from direct and reciprocal correlations between neurotransmitters. The neural networks presented here suggest a multimodal antidepressant pharmacotherapy by combining enhancing and antagonistic antidepressant drugs, for example noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors and GABAB antagonists.