alexa Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson's Disease: A Multi-Neurotransmitter System
ISSN: 2157-7099

Journal of Cytology & Histology
Open Access

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Review Article

Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson's Disease: A Multi-Neurotransmitter System

Felix-Martin Werner1,2* and Rafael Coveñas2

1Higher Vocational School for Elderly Care and Occupational Therapy, The Euro Akademie Pößneck, Germany

2Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and León (INCYL), Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Felix-Martin Werner
Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and León (INCYL) Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14 c/ Pintor Fernando Gallego
137007-Salamanca, Spain
Tel: +34923294400; extension 1856
Fax: +34923294549
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 20, 2014; Accepted Date: July 23, 2014; Published Date: July 25, 2014

Citation: Werner FM, Covenas R (2014) Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson’s Disease: A Multi- Neurotransmitter System. J Cytol Histol 5:266. doi: 10.4172/2157-7099.1000266

Copyright: © 2014 Werner FM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease with motor and non-motor symptoms. In Parkinson’s disease, a neurotransmitter imbalance occurs in the extrapyramidal system with a dopamine and GABA deficiency and an acetylcholine and glutamate surplus. Other classical neurotransmitters such as serotonin, the neuroactive substance adenosine and neuropeptides such as dynorphin and substance P are also involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Here, we describe the alterations of the involved neuroactive substances and the relationships between them in the extrapyramidal system. From the findings previously reported in the literature, here a neural network is developed in the extrapyramidal system. Additional anti-Parkinsonian drugs and their actions in the neural network are also pointed out, since a multimodal pharmacotherapy of the disease might improve its outcome.

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