alexa Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson's Disease: A Multi-Neurotransmitter System
ISSN: 2157-7099

Journal of Cytology & Histology
Open Access

Like us on:
OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson's Disease: A Multi-Neurotransmitter System

Felix-Martin Werner1,2* and Rafael Coveñas2

1Higher Vocational School for Elderly Care and Occupational Therapy, The Euro Akademie Pößneck, Germany

2Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and León (INCYL), Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Felix-Martin Werner
Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and León (INCYL) Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14 c/ Pintor Fernando Gallego
137007-Salamanca, Spain
Tel: +34923294400; extension 1856
Fax: +34923294549
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 20, 2014; Accepted Date: July 23, 2014; Published Date: July 25, 2014

Citation: Werner FM, Covenas R (2014) Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson’s Disease: A Multi- Neurotransmitter System. J Cytol Histol 5:266. doi: 10.4172/2157-7099.1000266

Copyright: © 2014 Werner FM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease with motor and non-motor symptoms. In Parkinson’s disease, a neurotransmitter imbalance occurs in the extrapyramidal system with a dopamine and GABA deficiency and an acetylcholine and glutamate surplus. Other classical neurotransmitters such as serotonin, the neuroactive substance adenosine and neuropeptides such as dynorphin and substance P are also involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Here, we describe the alterations of the involved neuroactive substances and the relationships between them in the extrapyramidal system. From the findings previously reported in the literature, here a neural network is developed in the extrapyramidal system. Additional anti-Parkinsonian drugs and their actions in the neural network are also pointed out, since a multimodal pharmacotherapy of the disease might improve its outcome.

Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version