Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson's Disease: A Multi-Neurotransmitter SystemFelix-Martin Werner1,2* and Rafael Coveñas2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Felix-Martin Werner
Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and León (INCYL) Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14 c/ Pintor Fernando Gallego
Tel: +34923294400; extension 1856
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: June 20, 2014; Accepted Date: July 23, 2014; Published Date: July 25, 2014
Citation: Werner FM, Covenas R (2014) Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides involved in Parkinson’s Disease: A Multi- Neurotransmitter System. J Cytol Histol 5:266. doi: 10.4172/2157-7099.1000266
Copyright: © 2014 Werner FM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease with motor and non-motor symptoms. In Parkinson’s disease, a neurotransmitter imbalance occurs in the extrapyramidal system with a dopamine and GABA deficiency and an acetylcholine and glutamate surplus. Other classical neurotransmitters such as serotonin, the neuroactive substance adenosine and neuropeptides such as dynorphin and substance P are also involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Here, we describe the alterations of the involved neuroactive substances and the relationships between them in the extrapyramidal system. From the findings previously reported in the literature, here a neural network is developed in the extrapyramidal system. Additional anti-Parkinsonian drugs and their actions in the neural network are also pointed out, since a multimodal pharmacotherapy of the disease might improve its outcome.