alexa Clinical Complications of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in S
ISSN: 2155-6156

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism
Open Access

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Review Article

Clinical Complications of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in South Asian and Chinese Populations: An Overview

Gundu H R Rao1*, Pratiksha G Gandhi2 and Vineeta Sharma3

1Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, USA

2Chairperson, IPC Heart Care, Mumbai, India

3Molecular and Cell Biologist, San Francisco, California, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Gundu H R Rao
Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware St SE
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
Tel: 952 594 5248
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: May 07, 2014; Accepted date: August 27, 2014; Published date: September 05, 2014

Citation: Rao GHR, Gandhi PG, Sharma V (2014) Clinical Complications of Type- 2 Diabetes Mellitus in South Asian and Chinese Populations: An Overview. J Diabetes Metab 5:420. doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000420

Copyright: © 2014 Rao GHR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

According to recent projections of World Health Organization (WHO), India already leads the world, with the largest number of diabetic subjects. China is fast approaching to claim the number one spot. World Diabetes Federation estimates, that India has over 65 million diabetics and an equal number of pre-diabetics. Major contributors for the development of this chronic disorder are hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, obesity, oxidative stress, and metabolic syndrome. Some of the early symptoms related to this altered glycemia include polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and changes in the vision. Later clinical complications include vasculopathy, peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy and pre-disposition to infections. Clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of tight control of hyperglycemia as well as of multiple risk factors. Early detection of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, altered lipid metabolism and better management of these observed risks, is the best choice we have, to reduce the Global Health Care burden. Excess glucose in the circulating blood seems to impair the endothelial dependent vasodilatation in both the microcirculation as well as macro-circulation. Prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic environment and altered endothelial function seems to accelerate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and type-2 diabetes and its clinical complications.

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