Comparative Antimicrobial Activity of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) and Common Topical Antimicrobials against Bacteria Associated With Wound and Topical Infections
Bhoj R Singh*, Prasanna Vadhana, Monika Bhardwaj, Vinodh Kumar OR, Dharmendra K Sinha and Shiv Varan Singh
Division of Epidemiology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Bhoj R Singh
Division of Epidemiology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: October 29, 2016; Accepted date: November 07, 2016; Published date: November 10, 2016
Citation: Singh BR, Vadhana P, Bhardwaj M, Vinodh Kumar OR, Sinha DK, et al. (2016) Comparative Antimicrobial Activity of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) and Common Topical Antimicrobials against Bacteria Associated With Wound and Topical Infections. Pharm Anal Acta 7:513. doi: 10.4172/2153-2435.1000513
Copyright: © 2016 Singh BR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Tea Tree Oil (TTO) is a popular herbal antimicrobial for topical application against many microbes. This study was conducted to determine a spectrum of antimicrobial activity of TTO against bacteria often associated with topical infections and wound infection in human and animals. A total of 550 strains of bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans were tested for their sensitivity to TTO and eight antibiotics including polymyxin B sulfate, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and novobiocin. Gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic followed by chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and polymyxin B inhibiting 87.1%, 84.8%, 76.8%, 75% and 72.8% strains, respectively. Tea tree oil (at 1 μL/ mL) could inhibit the growth of 20.5% strains. Except all strains of Streptobacillus, Sphingomonas, Cytophaga and Brahmnella, 71.4% Brucella, 60% Bordetella and 53.1% Aeromonas species (46.9%), only a few strains of other genera were sensitive to TTO. Only 20.5% strains were sensitive to TTO and multiple drug resistance (MDR) was positively correlated to their resistance to TTO, as 50%, 25%, 12%, 6% and 5% of the strains resistant to 0, 1-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-8 antimicrobial drugs, respectively were sensitive to TTO. Sensitivity of bacteria to TTO was positively correlated (p, ≤0.05) with their sensitivity to novobiocin (r, 0.24), tetracycline (r, 0.22), gentamicin (r, 0.21), ciprofloxacin (r, 0.17), nitrofurantoin (r, 0.16), and chloramphenicol (r, 0.14) while correlation was insignificant (p, >0.05) with sensitivity to co-trimoxazole (r, 0.10) and polymyxin B (r, 0.12). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TTO varied from 0.001% to >0.512% (v/v) for different strains. The study revealed that TTO is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial active on 26 out of 44 genera of bacteria is a less promising antimicrobial than antibiotics on MDR strains. The study concluded that resistance to TTO, antibiotics and other antimicrobials in bacteria of clinical origin go hand in hand.