Complication of Tetanus: Report of 402 Cases at the Fann University Hospital Center of Dakar in SenegalFortes Déguénonvo L1*, Leye MMM2, Dia NM3, Ndiaye R1, Lakhe NA1, Ka D1, Cisse VMP1, Diallo Mbaye K1, Diop SA4 and Seydi M1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Louise Fortes
Déguénonvo Infectious and Tropical Diseases
Department Ibrahima Diop Mar
Fann University Hospital
P.O. Box 5035 Dakar – Fann, Senegal
Tel: +221 77559 53 33
Email: [email protected]
Received Date: September 09, 2015; Accepted Date: September 13, 2015; Published Date: October 20, 2015
Citation: Fortes Déguénonvo L, Leye MMM, Dia NM, Ndiaye R, Lakhe NA, et al. (2015) Complication of Tetanus: Report of 402 Cases at the Fann University Hospital Center of Dakar in Senegal. J Trop Dis 4:182. doi:10.4172/2329-891X.1000182
Copyright: © 2015 Fortes Déguénonvo L,et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objectives: Tetanus is a major health problem in Senegal. The objective of this study was to describe complications related to tetanus and to identify factors associated with their occurrence.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a descriptive and analytical retrospective study including patients hospitalized with tetanus at the Infectious Diseases Department of Fann National University Hospital in Dakar from 2009 to 2012. The diagnosis of tetanus was confirmed based on the presence of clinical signs and the occurrence complications was assessed. Data were collected from medical records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate potential risk factors for tetanus complications.
Results: We included 402 cases of tetanus. The mean age was 29 ± 21 years and the sex ratio (M/F) 3.06. Skin was the most frequent portal of entry (76%). Overall, 184 patients presented at least one complication (46%). Infectious (127 cases, 69%), cardiovascular (84 cases, 45%) and respiratory (79 cases, 43%) complications were the most common. In multivariable analyses, age> 40 years (p <0.001), presence of co-morbidities (p <0.01), Mollaret stage ≥ II (p = 0.02) and Dakar score ≥ 1 (p <0.001) were factors associated with the occurrence of complications. Mortality was 21%. The circumstances of death were dominated by infections (71%), respiratory distress (45%) and laryngospasm (24%).
Conclusion: We observed high rates of complications and mortality among patients admitted with tetanus. The infection prevention and control in the intensive care unit, the improvement of life-support measures and diagnostic capacities will allow to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality related to tetanus complications.