alexa Continuous Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene Influences
ISSN: 2329-9002

Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Continuous Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene Influences on Mitochondrial Diversification of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochoeris; Hydrochoeridae, Rodentia): Incapacity to Determine Exclusive Hypotheses on the Origins of the Amazon and Orinoco Diversity for This Species

Manuel Ruiz-García1*, Kelly Luengas-Villamil1, Myreya Pinedo-Castro1, Leslie Leal2, Luz Mery Bernal-Parra2 and Joseph Mark Shostell3

1Population Genetics Laboratory-Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, Pontifical Xavierian University, Cra 7A No 43-82, Bogotá DC., Colombia

2School of Agricultural and Animal Sciences Environment, National Open University and Distance, Bogotá DC., Colombia

3Science and Technology Department, University of Minnesota Crookston, 2900 University Ave., Crookston, MN 56716, USA

*Corresponding Author:

Manuel Ruiz-García
Population Genetics
Laboratory-Evolutionary Biology
Genetics Unit, Department of Biology
Science Faculty, Pontifical Xavierian University
Cra 7A No 43-82, Bogotá DC., Colombia
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 21, 2016;Accepted Date: May 17, 2016; Published Date: May 25, 2016

Citation: Ruiz-García M, Luengas-Villamil K, Pinedo-Castro M, Leal L, Bernal-Parra LM, et al. (2016) Continuous Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene Influences on Mitochondrial Diversification of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochoeris; Hydrochoeridae, Rodentia): Incapacity to Determine Exclusive Hypotheses on the Origins of the Amazon and Orinoco Diversity for This Species. J Phylogen Evolution Biol 4:166. doi:10.4172/2329-9002.1000166

Copyright: © 2016 Ruiz-García M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris) is the largest rodent on the world and it is strongly linked to the river systems of a large fraction of South America and part of Central America (Panama). Thus, it is an interesting species to test hypotheses about the origin of the high biodiversity within the Amazon Basin and in a sizeable fraction of the Neotropics. To test these hypotheses, we sequenced two mitochondrial genes (control region and Cytochrome b) of 78 wild capybaras sampled in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. At least, five different “populations” or ESUs were detected in well delimited geographical areas. However, our results do not support the more recent view that two different species of capybara are present (H. hydrochoeris and H. isthmus), unless chromosomal speciation (stasipatric or parapatric) can be demonstrated between these two groups. A Bayesian tree with the aforementioned two mitochondrial genes, and another Bayesian tree with a subset of 25 capybaras for 10 mitochondrial genes, showed that the initial diversification of the mitochondrial haplotype in capybaras was initiated in the Late Miocene. The trees also showed that the other haplotype diversification processes extended into the Pliocene and Pleistocene. We also detected population expansion events during different moments of the Pleistocene. Although some authors strongly suggest that the Miocene diversification explains the extreme biodiversity in the Amazon Basin and in surroundings areas (for instance, the Paleogeography hypothesis), others consider it the result of available forest refugia (Refuge hypothesis) during the Pleistocene. However, our results suggest that both hypotheses (and others, such as the Riverrefuge, the Recent Lagoon and the Hydrogeological Recent Change hypotheses) could have affected the evolution of the capybara to generate the current mitochondrial diversity. Thus, it is difficult to generalize a unique Amazon biota diversification hypothesis because each species or taxon could be affected by different processes and because the temporal antiquity of each taxon in South America is also different. Many mammalian taxa, and others, migrated into South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) and their diversification processes in South America were mainly driven by Pleistocene events as those proposed by the Refuge hypothesis. Older taxa within this continent could have begun their current genetics diversification processes earlier, such as in the case of the capybara.

Keywords

Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading
Loading Please wait..
 
Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords