Contribution of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase to the Transformation of HTLV-1 Infected CD4+ T-CellsHicham H. Baydoun1 and Lee Ratner1,2*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Lee Ratner
Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular
Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: December 07, 2015 Accepted date: December 22 2015 Published date: December 25, 2015
Citation: Hicham HB, Lee R (2015) Contribution of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase to the Transformation of HTLV-1 Infected CD4+ T-Cells. J Leuk 3:199. doi:10.4172/2329-6917.1000199
Copyright: © 2015 Hicham HB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is the first retrovirus associated with a human cancer. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of an aggressive and fatal malignancy of CD4+ T lymphocytes known as Adult T-cell Leukemia lymphoma (ATLL). Since the discovery of the virus in 1980, intensive investigations have been undertaken to determine how HTLV-1 drives the transformation process in infected cells. This is because the oncogenic features of HTLV-1 make it an excellent tool to dissect the molecular pathways involved in cancer development. More important, HTLV-1 induced leukemia is a typical inflammation-mediated malignancy with constitutive activation of the NF-kB pathway, which is also a critical determinant in many other cancers. How NF-kB contributes to the leukemogenic process is not completely defined. We recently demonstrated that the NF-kB pathway induces the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HTLV-1 induced leukemia. iNOS enzymatically generates nitric oxide, which is an oxidative and nitrosative agent of DNA and protein. Nitric oxide was found to be associated with a large number of DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) in HTLV-1 transformed cells. Here, we will review the major effects of nitric oxide on HTLV-1 induced leukemia.