Cortical Synaptogenesis in the Human Brain in Conditions of Prenatal Alcoholization
Shushpanova TV*, Solonskii AV and Bokhan NA
Department of Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurobiology, Department of Addictive Disorders, Mental Health Research Institute, Russia
- Corresponding Author:
- Shushpanova TV
Mental Health Research Institute
4 Aleutskaya Street, Tomsk 634014, Russia
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E-mail: [email protected]
Received date February 29, 2016; Accepted date April 12, 2016; Published date April 19, 2016
Citation: Shushpanova TV, Solonskii AV, Bokhan NA (2016) Cortical Synaptogenesis in the Human Brain in Conditions of Prenatal Alcoholization. Autism Open Access 6:173. doi:10.4172/2165-7890.1000173
Copyright: © 2016 Shushpanova TV, et al. This is an open - access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: Shaping synaptic contact is one of the leading processes during which largely determine the future integrative brain capabilities. Prenatal exposure to ethanol may have an impact on synaptogenesis in the brain of the embryo and foetus. The purpose of this study - identify the features of synaptogenesis in the brain of embryos and fetuses in conditions of prenatal alcoholization. Materials and Methods: 33 embryos and fetuses were obtained from female alcoholic patients. Alcoholic patients were aged 26–39 years and the duration of illness was 3–13 years. In all cases, grade II alcoholism was diagnosed (ICD - 10 F10.201, F10.202). The control group consisted of embryos and fetuses from healthy women numbering 30 people with no history of neurological or mental illnesses. The method of electron microscopy and morphometry have been used to study peculiarities in formation of the structure of human embryo and fetus brain synapses at early stages (7 to 12 weeks) of development at mother alcoholization. Results: Electron microscopy of material obtained from alcoholic women has shown slowing - down of formation of synaptic structure. Morphometry has revealed that under the influence of prenatal alcoholization the formation of components of synaptic brain contacts slows down at studying stages of development: the area of presynaptic terminals and their perimeter decreases, and the perimeter of postsynaptic densities decreases as well. Conclusions: The data showed a significant effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the development of synaptic structures - reduction of morphometric parameters, slowing the formation of synaptic contacts on the background of reduction of their formation in the brain of the fetus in the early stages of development compared with the norm, which is reflected on during synaptogenesis in the developing brain and can lie the basis of severe disorders in the unborn child.