alexa Cross Modal Generalization of Receptive and Expressive
ISSN: 2472-1115

Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities
Open Access

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Research Article

Cross Modal Generalization of Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary in Children with Down Syndrome

Tonia N Davis, Stephen Camarata* and Mary Camarata

Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Corresponding Author:
Stephen Camarata
Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences
1215 21st Avenue South, Suite 8310
Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Tel: 615-936-5111
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 30, 2015; Accepted date: January 26, 2016; Published date: January 26, 2016

Citation: Davis TN, Camarata S, Camarata M (2016) Cross Modal Generalization of Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary in Children with Down Syndrome. J Down Syndr Chr Abnorm 2:105. doi:10.4172/2472-1115.1000105

Copyright: © 2016 Davis TN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objective: A common assumption in vocabulary training for Down syndrome (DS) is that learning in one modality will generalize incidentally to untreated modalities, but few studies evaluate the validity of this presumption. The purpose of this study was to examine cross modal generalization in children with DS. Method: Five preschool children with DS were taught three sets of receptive and expressive vocabulary within a multiple probe single subject design. Vocabulary knowledge for trained and untrained modalities was probed. Results: Cross modal generalization probes indicated moderate transfer from the treated expressive modality to the untreated receptive modality but relatively low receptive generalization to the untreated expressive modality in all participants. Conclusion: These results support delivering expressive vocabulary interventions in DS provided clinicians systematically test generalization to receptive knowledge. Conversely, receptive vocabulary training, although certainly a worthwhile goal for children with DS, is less likely to generalize across modality.


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