alexa Cultural Comparison for the Action of Looking At a Mobile Phone Display Focusing on Independent/Interdependent Self

Bioceramics Development and Applications
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Research Article

Cultural Comparison for the Action of Looking At a Mobile Phone Display Focusing on Independent/Interdependent Self

Takashi N1*, Adam Acar2 and Mark NG3

1Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University, Japan

2Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Japan

3Department of Business Administration, Hong Kong Shue Yan University, Hong Kong

*Corresponding Author:
Takashi N
Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University, Japan
Tel: 81252626452
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: August 25, 2016; Accepted date: August 31, 2016; Published date: September 07, 2016

Citation: Takashi N, Acar A, Mark NG (2016) Cultural Comparison for the Action of Looking At a Mobile Phone Display Focusing on Independent/Interdependent Self. Bioceram Dev Appl 6:095. doi: 10.4172/2090-5025.1000095

Copyright: © 2016 Takashi N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



This paper focused on the action of looking at a mobile phone display as a type of nonverbal behavior/ communication and compared it cross-culturally. The diversity of nonverbal behavior/communication was considered to be caused by the difference between Western and non-Western cultures. The questionnaire was conducted in three countries (the USA, Hong Kong and Japan), and a total of 309 subjects participated. The participants were required to record their opinions for the action according to the situation with ‘co-present’ familiar persons. The analysis declared that the difference between the USA and Japan was more pronounced as the relationship with the ‘co-present’ person was more intimate. The results of the Hong Kong sample were intermediate between those of the other two countries. The diversity was discussed in terms of independent/interdependent self in the perspective of cultural comparison and of mobile phone usage. The analysis revealed that the action as a form of nonverbal behavior/communication has functioned in human relationships and has been deeply embedded into culture in the mobile phone era.


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