alexa Current Trend in Pneumococcal Serotype Distribution in
ISSN: 2157-7560

Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
Open Access

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Research Article

Current Trend in Pneumococcal Serotype Distribution in Asia

Cheng-Foh Le, Mohd Yasim Mohd Yusof and Shamala Devi Sekaran*
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Corresponding Author : Shamala Devi Sekaran
Department of Medical Microbiology
Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya
50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: 6-0379-675759
Fax: 6-0379-584844
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: October 20, 2011; Accepted: December 13, 2011; Published: December 16, 2011
Citation: Le C, Yusof MYM, Sekaran SD (2011) Current Trend in Pneumococcal Serotype Distribution in Asia. J Vaccines Vaccin S2:001. doi:10.4172/2157-7560.S2-001
Copyright: © 2011 Le C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The majority of smooth muscle tumors found in the uterus are benign, but uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are extremely malignant, with high rates of recurrence and metastasis. The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, the development of uterine LMS is not substantially correlated with hormonal conditions, and the risk factors are not clearly understood. The presentation of antigenic peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is important for tumor rejection by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Such antigenic peptides are generated as a result of the degradation of intracellular proteins by the proteasome pathway, a process that is influenced by the interferon (IFN)-?-inducible low molecular mass polypeptide-2 (LMP2) subunit of the 20S proteasome. Homozygous deficient mice for LMP2 are now known to spontaneously develop uterine LMS. LMP2 expression is reportedly absent in human uterine LMS, but present in human myometrium. Further studies revealed a few infiltrating CD56+ NK cells in human uterine LMS tissues. This review aims at summarizing recent insights into the regulation of NK cell function and the T cell-mediated immune system as tumor immune surveillance, first attempts to exploit NK cell activation to improve immunity to tumors.


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