Deoxygenation of Palmitic Acid to Produce Diesel-like Hydrocarbons over Nickel Incorporated Cellular Foam Catalyst: A Kinetic Study
- Corresponding Author:
- Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah
School of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Sains Malaysia
14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: February 11, 2016; Accepted Date: February 27, 2016; Published Date: March 07, 2016
Citation: Hermida L, Amani H, Abdullah AZ, Mohamed AR (2016) Deoxygenation of Palmitic Acid to Produce Diesel-like Hydrocarbons over Nickel Incorporated Cellular Foam Catalyst: A Kinetic Study. J Adv Chem Eng 6:144. doi:10.4172/2090-4568.1000144
Copyright: © 2016 Hermida L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Nickel incorporated mesostructured cellular foam (NiMCF) was studied as a catalyst for palmitic acid deoxygenation to primarily synthesize n-pentadecane and 1-pentadecene. The kinetic behaviour was tested in a temperature range from 280 to 300°C. The reaction was found to follow a first order kinetic model with respect to the palmitic acid with an activation energy of 111.57 KJ/Mol. In the reusability study, it was found that the average reduction in palmitic acid conversions was about 40.5%, which indicated the occurrence of catalyst deactivation during the deoxygenation. Fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction correlate their characteristics with catalytic activity and to identify the main catalyst deactivation mechanism. The catalyst deactivation was mainly due to phase transformation of metallic nickel (Ni0) to nickel ion (Ni2+) and the deposition of organic molecules on the catalyst during the deoxygenation. Regeneration of spent catalyst successfully reduced the drops in the palmitic acid conversions between the reaction cycles from 40.5% to 11.3%.