alexa Detecting ALK Gene Rearrangements in Lung Cancer Cytology Specimens
ISSN: 2157-7099

Journal of Cytology & Histology
Open Access

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Review Article

Detecting ALK Gene Rearrangements in Lung Cancer Cytology Specimens

Cooper WA1-3* and O’Toole SA1,2,4

1Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

2Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

3School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia

4The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia

*Corresponding Author:
Wendy Cooper
Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Rd
Camperdown NSW 2050, Australia
Tel: (+612) 9515 7804
Fax: (+612) 9515 8405
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 23, 2014; Accepted Date: February 04, 2014; Published Date: February 06, 2014

Citation: Cooper WA, O’Toole SA (2014) Detecting ALK Gene Rearrangements in Lung Cancer Cytology Specimens. J Cytol Histol 5:216. doi: 10.4172/2157-7099.1000216

Copyright: © 2014 Cooper WA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Molecular testing for EGFR mutations and ALK gene rearrangements has become a routine part of lung cancer pathological diagnosis, and is critical to determine the most effective therapies for patients with this poor prognosis cancer. ALK gene rearrangements are seen particularly in adenocarcinoma of the lung and are associated with an excellent response rate to targeted inhibition with crizotinib in clinical trials for many patients whose tumours harbour this change. ALK gene rearrangement is generally observed at low incidence posing challenges for routine detection. Since a high proportion of lung cancers are inoperable at presentation, cytology plays a central role in diagnosis and provision of material for ALK testing. The advantages offered by cytology specimens for ALK and other molecular testing are becoming increasingly recognised - cytology specimens tend to have a lower proportion of contaminating stromal and other non-neoplastic cells and often have higher quality DNA than routine histology specimens. One challenge is the often limited amount of cytological material obtaining in many lung cancer cytology specimens. FISH testing for ALK gene rearrangement using a break-apart probe is the gold standard for testing although there is a strong role for immunohistochemistry in ALK testing. This review highlights key aspects of ALK testing in cytology specimens.

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