alexa Detection of Aflatoxins, Mutagens and Carcinogens in Bl
ISSN: 1948-5948

Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Open Access

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Research Article

Detection of Aflatoxins, Mutagens and Carcinogens in Black, White and Green Peppers (Piper Nigrum L.)

Jesús Ismael Garduño-García1, Magda Carvajal-Moreno1*, Francisco Rojo-Callejas2and Silvia Ruiz-Velasco3

1Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 Ciudad de México, México

2Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Ciudad de México, México

3Departamento de Probabilidad y Estadística, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, UNAM, 04510 Ciudad de México

*Corresponding Author:
Magda Carvajal M
Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 Ciudad de México
Tel: 525556229138; 5525238197
Fax: +5255 55501760
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 21, 2017; Accepted date: May 15, 2017; Published date: May 22, 2017

Citation: Garduño-García JI, Carvajal-Moreno M, Rojo-Callejas F, Ruiz-Velasco S (2017) Detection of Aflatoxins, Mutagens and Carcinogens in Black, White and Green Peppers (Piper Nigrum L.). J Microb Biochem Technol 9:095-104. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000350

Copyright: © 2017 Garduño-García JI, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited



Aflatoxins, bis-dihydro-furancoumarins, are secondary metabolites that are produced by molds of Aspergillus sp. with adverse effects in humans and animals. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies aflatoxins in Group 1 of proven human carcinogens. Thus, aflatoxins in foods are highly regulated throughout the world. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantify aflatoxins in 54 pepper samples (19 black, 19 white and 16 green peppers) from markets in Egypt, India, Turkey and the 16 boroughs of Mexico City, as well as to validate the experimental method used. All samples were contaminated with at least one aflatoxin: 95% (51/54) were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (0.1 to 218 μg kg-1); 80% (43/54) with aflatoxin B2 (0.4 to 382 μg kg-1); 67% (36/54) with aflatoxin G1 (0.4 to 612 μg kg-1); and 93% (50/54) with aflatoxin G2 (1.37 to 494 μg kg-1). Only 9.26% of the samples (5/54) were under the Mexican legislation limit, whereas all foreign samples surpassed the limits established for their respective countries. Although the aflatoxin concentrations in peppers are high, their ingestion is minimal because peppers are used in only small quantities as a flavor-enhancing product. Therefore, the contribution of aflatoxins from a pepper to an organism is relatively low in comparison to other agricultural products, such as maize, pistachio, peanuts and dairy products. Green pepper was the most contaminated with aflatoxins, white pepper was the least contaminated and black pepper had an intermediate level of contamination. This study describes a detailed analysis of aflatoxin contamination in pepper in three different ripening stages: green, black and white. The lack of normativity in countries on this subject prevents the reduction of AF concentrations in the diet


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