D-Glucose-Induced Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Apoptotic Effects on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) Cells
Christine K Tchounwou, Clement G Yedjou*, Ibrahim Farah and Paul B Tchounwou
Cellomics and Toxicogenomics Research Laboratory, NIH-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Clement G Yedjou
Cellomics and Toxicogenomics Research Laboratory
NIH-Center for Environmental Health
College of Science, Engineering and Technology
Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street
P.O. Box 18540, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
Tel: (601) 979-0215
Fax: (601) 979-5853
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: March 06, 2014; Accepted Date: April 22, 2014; Published Date: April 25, 2014
Citation: Tchounwou CK, Yedjou CG, Farah I, Tchounwou PB (2014) D-Glucose- Induced Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Apoptotic Effects on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) Cells. J Cancer Sci Ther 6:156-160. doi: 10.4172/1948-5956.1000265
Copyright: © 2014 Tchounwou CK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction: Glucose is a simple sugar that plays an important role in energy production in biological systems. However, it has been linked to many long-term health problems including the risk of heart disease and stroke, erectile dysfunction in men and pregnancy complications in women, and damage to the kidneys, nerves, eye and vision. Also, the underlying mechanisms of diabetic complications are poorly understood.
Methods: In the present study, D-glucose-induced cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects were studied using MCF-7 cells as an in vitro test model. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay).
Results: The results of MTT assay indicated that D-glucose significantly reduces the viability of MCF-7 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Similar trend was obtained with the trypan blue exclusion test. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that D-glucose causes DNA damage in MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The flow cytometry assessment (Annexin V FITC/PI) showed a strong dose-response relationship between D-glucose exposure and annexin V positive MCF-7 cells undergoing early apoptosis.
Conclusion: Taking together, these data provide clear evidence that D-glucose induces cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 cells. This finding represents the basis for further studies addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of glucose overdose.