Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontal Disease
Introduction: The association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease has been studied in the last years, and several studies conclude that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for the development of gingivitis and/or periodontitis in both diabetes type 1 and 2. In this review article we intend to demonstrate the possible association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease, assessing their main characteristics, the association with social status and the influence of periodontal disease control on Diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: A literature research for the completion of this review article was performed by using the Pubmed and Science Direct database. The keywords "Diabetes mellitus", "periodontal disease", "gingivitis", "peridontitis" and "periodontal therapy" were used for the selection of articles and books used in this current study. At the end, we selected 31 scientific articles and 8 textbooks that allowed the preparation of this review article on the topic. Results: Scientific research in recent years regarding this specific issue has allowed the establishment of a clear association between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus among diabetics type 1 and 2. The main complications of diabetes mellitus are angiopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Several studies have demonstrated the oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus, assuming particular highlight the periodontal disease. Periodontal disease can negatively influence glycemic control in diabetics. However, it is questionable the association between periodontal therapy and the improvement blood glucose levels control in diabetic patients. Conclusions: There should be an interaction between general practitioners and dentists so that such patients have the appropriate preventive care and persistent periodontal therapy in specialized medical and dental clinics.