Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: Pathogenesis to Pharmacological Management
Navpreet Kaur, Lalit Kishore and Randhir Singh*
M.M. College of Pharmacy, M.M. University, Mullana-Ambala, Haryana 133207, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Randhir Singh
M.M. College of Pharmacy, M.M. University
Mullana-Ambala, Haryana, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 23, 2014; Accepted date: June 27, 2014; Published date: July 04, 2014
Citation: Kaur N, Kishore L, Singh R (2014) Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: Pathogenesis to Pharmacological Management. J Diabetes Metab 5:402. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000402
Copyright: © 2014 Singh R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is a debilitating complication of diabetes which can cause heart disease, gastrointestinal symptoms, genitourinary disorders and metabolic diseases. Hyperglycemia induces glucose flux through the polyol pathway; excess/inappropriate activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) isoforms; accumulation of Advanced Glycation End products (AGE’s) and these pathways are associated with metabolic and/or redox state of the cell. Activation of these metabolic pathways leads to oxidative stress which is a mediator of hyperglycemia induced cell injury and is a unifying theme for all mechanisms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Glycemic control can slow the onset of diabetic autonomic neuropathy and may reverse it. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies are available to treat various symptoms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. This review focuses on the pathology, animal models and therapeutic approaches available for the management of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.