alexa Diagnosis and Management of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Associated with Chromosomal Syndromes | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2168-9849

Cloning & Transgenesis
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

Diagnosis and Management of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Associated with Chromosomal Syndromes

Pablo Antonio Ysunza1, Ian Jackson Craniofacial1 and Cheryl L Lozon2
1Department of Speech & Language Pathology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA
2Department of Speech & Language Pathology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA
Corresponding Author : Pablo Antonio Ysunza
Department of Speech & Language Pathology
Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA
Fax: (248)551-4692
E-mail: [email protected]
Received August 13, 2013; Accepted August 26, 2013; Published August 28, 2013
Citation: Ysunza PA, Craniofacial IJ, Lozon CL (2013) Diagnosis and Management of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Associated with Chromosomal Syndromes. Clon Transgen 2:113. doi:10.4172/2168-9849.1000113
Copyright: © 2013 Ysunza PA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


All congenital structural defects in the body are the result of an error in morphogenesis. Morphogenesis takes place around 25 to 29 days of intrauterine life. Chromosomal syndromes involve a phenotypically significant structural and/or numerical chromosomal abnormality. An insufficient function of the velopharyngeal sphincter induces excessive nasal resonance during speech. This abnormal resonance is called hypernasality. A deficient seal of the velopharyngeal sphincter creates an airflow leaking into the rhinopharynx, resulting in abnormal air turbulence through the nasal cavities which can be easily perceived and is called nasal emission. Hypernasality and nasal emission are the clinical signs of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). In other words, VPI is the velopharyngeal inability to create an efficient seal during speech. Most chromosomal syndromes cause VPI as a consequence of a cleft palate. However, when patients with a chromosomal abnormality and VPI are being clinically assessed, it is essential to keep in mind that an apparently and morphologically intact uvula and velum do not rule out the possibility of a sub mucous cleft palate. Several chromosomal syndromes can be associated with VPI, including: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) or velocardiofacial syndrome among other names, Opitz G/BBB syndrome (OS), Kabuki syndrome (KS) and Jacobsen syndrome (JS). Pierre – Robin sequence (PRS) can be associated with some chromosomal syndromes. In these ncases, PRS is referred as syndromic PRS. In this paper, the diagnosis and management of VPI in the most common chromosomal syndromes is discussed.


Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


porn sex

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

Gaziantep Escort

chemis[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037


James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

mp3 indir

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals


Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7