Dietary Diversity and Nutritional Status of Urban Primary School Children from Iran and IndiaSahar Hooshmand1* and Shobha A Udipi2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sahar Hooshmand
Department of Food Science and Nutrition
S.N.D.T. Women’s University
Juhu, Mumbai-400049, India
Received date February 12, 2013; Accepted date February 27, 2013; Published date March 01, 2013
Citation: Hooshmand S, Udipi SA (2013) Dietary Diversity and Nutritional Status of Urban Primary School Children from Iran and India. J Nutr Disorders Ther S12:001. doi:10.4172/2161-0509.S12-001
Copyright: © 2013 Hooshmand S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction: Nutritional status of children is influenced by diet. Better dietary diversity helps ensure adequate intake of essential nutrients especially for growing school going children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary scores and nutritional status of urban Iranian and Indian school children.
Methods: The present study examined dietary diversity, weight-for-age (WA) and height-for-age (HA) and weightfor- height weight-for-age z-scores and nutritional status of 4570 children aged 6-9 years, including 2234 Iranian (1016 boys, 1218 girls) and 2336 Indian (1240 boys, 1096 girls) attending primary schools residing in Mumbai and Ahwaz, Iran, from low and middle income categories. Dietary diversity scores were assessed based on frequency of consumption of individual food items categorized into 11 individual food groups.
Results: Total dietary diversity scores were significantly higher for Indian children who had normal weight or who were overweight (F=32.197, p=0.000) and lowest for underweight children. Similar trends were observed for the children from Iran (F=9.345, p=0.000). Total food group scores increased with better height status of the children. In both countries, severely and moderately stunted children had lower total mean scores than those who had normal and above average height. Wasting was also associated with lower total mean scores. Analysis of data for individual food groups showed that increasing weight was associated with higher scores for almost all food groups in India. In Iran, mean scores for vegetables, beverages, sweets and fats increased with increasing weight. Heights for age z-scores were positively associated with a mean score for pulses in countries and dairy products, beverages and fats. Higher BMI was associated with higher scores for cereals, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, mixed dishes, beverages, sweets and fats.