Differential Gene Expression Profiling in Bed Bug (Cimex Lectularius L.) Fed on Ibuprofen and Caffeine in Reconstituted Human Blood
Ralph B. Narain, Haichuan Wang and Shripat T. Kamble*
Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Shripat T. Kamble
Department of Entomology
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 11, 2015; Accepted date: August 22, 2015; Published date: August 25, 2015
Citation: Narain RB, Wang H, Kamble ST (2015) Differential Gene Expression Profiling in Bed Bug (Cimex Lectularius L.) Fed on Ibuprofen and Caffeine in Reconstituted Human Blood. Entomol Ornithol Herpetol 4:160. doi: 10.4172/2161-0983.1000160
Copyright: © 2015 Narain RB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The recent resurgence of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) infestations worldwide has created a need for renewed research on biology, behavior, population genetics and management practices. Humans serve as exclusive hosts to bed bugs in urban environments. Since a majority of humans consume Ibuprofen (as pain medication) and caffeine (in coffee and other soft drinks) so bug bugs subsequently acquire Ibuprofen and caffeine through blood feeding. However, the effect of these chemicals at genetic level in bed bug is unknown. Therefore, this research was conducted to determine differential gene expression in bed bugs using RNA-Seq analysis at dosages of 200 ppm Ibuprofen and 40 ppm caffeine incorporated into reconstituted human blood and compared against the control. Total RNA was extracted from a single bed bug per replication per treatment and sequenced. Read counts obtained were analyzed using Bioconductor software programs to identify differentially expressed genes, which were then searched against the non-redundant (nr) protein database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Data on comparison of differentially expressed genes between control and Ibuprofen treatments revealed that 659 genes were significantly differentially regulated and 95% of them returned BLAST hits. Heat stress proteins were among the top significantly differentially down regulated genes. Comparison of the control vs caffeine treatments revealed that 2,161 genes were significantly differently regulated (Padj <0.05). Heat shock proteins were among the top ten down regulated genes in both treatments. Finally, using RNAi to identify the exact function of these highly differentially expressed genes and regulating these genes may offer potential for managing bed bug populations.