Discoid Lupus Erythematosus in Saudi Arabia: A literature review
Received Date: Dec 04, 2015 / Accepted Date: Jan 15, 2016 / Published Date: Feb 22, 2016
Background: Discoid lupus erythematous (DLE) is the most common type of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus with a small risk of progression to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE).DLE classically presents with erythematous to violaceous, scaly plaques with prominent follicular plugging that often results in scarring and atrophy. Although the diagnosis of classical DLE is generally clinical, histopathological study of skin biopsy is helpful to confirm the diagnosis in early or atypical DLE lesions.
Objectives: We aim to analyse the available PubMed database and local journals (Journal of the Saudi Society of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery) literature on Discoid lupus erythematosus in a Saudi population: Clinical and histopathological study.
Methods: We carried out a systemic search using the PubMed database and local journals (Journal of the Saudi Society of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery).The search was limited to the English language. The following search terms were used: discoid lupus erythematous in Saudi Arabia, chronic cutaneous lupus erythematous in Saudi Arabia, systemic lupus erythematous in Saudi Arabia, Lupus in Saudi Arabia.
Results: The PubMed database and local journals (Journal of the Saudi Society of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery) search generated 10 papers related to DLE in Saudi Arabia. The incidence of DLE in adult SLE Saudi patients is around 14% and lower incidence rate 3.3% in children.11.8% of DLE patients progressed to SLE. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQB1*3) was increased among SLE patients with skin manifestation. The mean age of onset was 36.5 years and female to male ratio was 1.5:1.Scalp and face were the most affected .Atrophic form was the most common type. 16.1% of DLE patients had positive antinuclear antibody and 14.3% of those patients had positive DsDNA. Sever lichenoid reaction, vacuolar degeneration, deep dermal and periappendageal lymphocytic infiltration may use as alarming for progression to more severe form of lupus.
Conclusion: Despite the scanty of published papers about DLE in Saudi Population, the clinical and histopathological features of DLE in Saudi patients are comparable to those reported in the literatures. Further studies are required to demonstrate the clinical patterns, histopathological features and immunofluorescence of DLE to make accurate portray about the national status of DLE
Keywords: DLE; SLE; Lupus; Saudi Arabia
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