Distribution and Disease Prevalence of Coral Associated Bacteria at Some Impacted Red Sea ReefsAl-Hammady MAM1* and Mohamed MH2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Al-Hammady MAM
National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries
Red Sea Brach, Hurghada, Egypt
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: January 01, 2016; Accepted date: January 23, 2016; Published date: February 01, 2016
Citation: Al-Hammady MAM, Mohamed MH (2016) Distribution and Disease Prevalence of Coral Associated Bacteria at Some Impacted Red Sea Reefs. J Biodivers Endanger Species 4:158. doi: 10.4172/2332-2543.1000158
Copyright: © 2016 Al-Hammady MAM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Prevalence and distribution of coral disease were surveyed in three impacted sites at Red Sea coast. Prevalence were significant difference between studied reefs (ANOVA; F = 10.777, p < 0.0001). Sites closed to oil pollution (sites 1 and 2) displayed much higher levels of disease prevalence (25.3% ± 8.3 2 and 18.5% ± 3.1, respectively), than site 3 that close to landfilling (12.9% ± 2.1). Totally, 99coral braches, representing 20 species affected by at least 12 diseases. However, site 3 is characterized by the highest diversity (Simpson’s Index = 0.081) and highest percentage cover of life coral (35.2% ± 11.4) showed the lowest coral diseases number (3). In opposite, 10 coral diseases were recorded at site 1, and 8 coral diseases at site 2. While, the coral disease atramentous necrosis attained the highest prevalence percentage at sites 1 and 2 (3.2% and 4.5%, respectively), did not recorded at site 3. Sediment damage disease recorded the highest prevalence percentage at site 3 (5.1%), but did not record at sites 1 and 2. Diseases having lowest percentage cover were white band disease (sites 1 and 2) and white tips disease. The most commonly distributed disease (atramentous necrosis) infected five corals in site 1 and six corals in site 2. The least commonly distributed disease (white tips) infected only two corals (Acropora humilis and Acropora formosa) at site 3. The genus Porites at sites was particularly vulnerable to all diseases. However, Galaxea fasicularis at site 3 recorded the highest percent cover of sediment damage disease. Coral disease atramentous necrosis is always associated with Vermetidae predation and Tridacna boring. While, Drupels predation is associated with skeletal eroding band. Aggressive filamentous algal overgrowth is associated with sediment damage disease at site 3. The pathogenic bacterium isolated from the diseased Stylophora pistillata, Porites sp., and Acropora sp., referred to as Vibrio fischeri.