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Journal of Neuroscience and Neuropharmacology
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Research Article

Diurnal Variations of Endogenous Steroids in the Follicular Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

Anna Tiihonen Möller1*, Torbjörn Bäckström2, Hans Peter Söndergaard1, Mark M Kushnir3,4,5, Jonas Bergquist3,4 and Lotti Helström1

1Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,Stockholm South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

2Department of Clinical Science, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

3Department of Chemistry - Biomedical Centre, Analytical Chemistry and SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

4Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA

5ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Salt Lake City, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Anna Tiihonen Möller
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Stockholm South General Hospital
Sjukhusbacken 10, 118 83 Stockholm, Sweden
Tel: +4686164670
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: February 12, 2016 Accepted: February 22, 2016 Published: February 28, 2016

Citation: Möller AT, Bäckström T, Söndergaard HP, Kushnir MM, Bergquist J, et al. (2016) Diurnal Variations of Endogenous Steroids in the Follicular Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Neurochem Neuropharm Open Access 2:109. doi:10.4172/2469- 9780.1000109

Copyright: © 2016 Möller AT, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Rationale: The diurnal variations of cortisol and of other upstream glucocorticoid steroids have been well described. However, diurnal variations of other steroids in the steroid synthesis pathways have not been fully addressed in the literature. Objective: To explore possible diurnal variations of several endogenous steroids. Methods: Blood samples were taken every fourth hour during 24 hours in 10 healthy drug naïve pre-menopausal women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Using the LC-MS/MS technique, serum was analyzed for concentrations of glucocorticoids (cortisol, cortisone, 11-deoxycortisol), androgens (androstenedione, testosterone, DHEA), pregnenes (pregnenolone, 17OH-pregnenolone), progestins (progesterone, 17OH-progesterone), and estrogens (estrone, estradiol). The concentration of the anesthetic steroid allopregnanolone was analyzed using the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The blood samples were divided into six time intervals; 02:01-06:00, 06:01-10:00, 10:01-14:00, 14:01-18:00, 18:01-22:00, and 22:01-02:00. Each steroid was tested for possible diurnal variation using repeated measures ANOVA for within-subject variation. Results: All steroids except the estrogens exhibited a significant diurnal variation (p<0.05). Apart from allopregnanolone, all the steroids peaked in concentration at 08:00 (e.g., just after awakening). Allopregnanolone had a flatter curve, its highest concentrations occurring throughout the day and its peak concentrations at about 12:00. Conclusions: The present study suggests that when assessing concentrations of steroids in the glucocorticoid group and those in the pregnene, androgen, and progestine groups, as well as allopregnanolone, it might be necessary to accounted for a diurnal variation. However, a possible interaction between menstrual-cycle phase and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the diurnal variations of the steroids should be confirmed by future studies.

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