Dopamine: Receptors, Functions, Synthesis, Pathways, Locations and
Mental Disorders: Review of Literatures
Chief Psychiatry Professional and mhGap Coordinator at Research and Training Department, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, PO box: 1971, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Getinet Ayano
Chief Psychiatry Professional and mhGap Coordinator at Research and Training Department
Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, PO box: 1971
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 18, 2016; Accepted Date: July 26, 2016; Published Date: August 02, 2016
Citation: Ayano G (2016) Dopamine: Receptors, Functions, Synthesis, Pathways, Locations and Mental Disorders: Review of Literatures. J Ment Disord Treat 2: 120. doi:10.4172/2471-271X.1000120
Copyright: © 2016 Ayano G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Dopamine is monoamine neurotransmitter. Dopamine is produced in the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the substantia nigra, midbrain and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In the periphery, dopamine is found in the kidney where it functions to produce renal vasodilation, diuresis, and natriuresis. Dopamine neurons are more widely distributed than those of other monamines and it is found in hypothalamus, olfactory bulb, the midbrain substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area and in the periaqueductal gray and retina. There are five subtypes of dopamine receptors, D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5, which are members of the large G-protein coupled receptor super family. The dopamine receptor subtypes are divided into two major subclasses: types 1 and 5 are similar in structure and drug sensitivity, and these two receptors are referred to as the "D1like" group or class of receptors. Dopamine receptor types 2, 3, and 4 are called the "D2like" group. Dopamine plays central role in pleasurable reward behavior, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation), sleep, mood, attention, learning, behavior, control of nausea and vomiting and pain processing. In addition it also involved in controlling movement, emotion and cognition. Due to extensive localization of dopamine receptor to brain areas and its role in wide range of functions, dopaminergic dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, mood disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tourette's syndrome, substance dependency, Parkinson's disease and other disorders.