alexa Driving, Opioid-maintenance, and Co-medications: A Comprehensive Assessment of 22 Cases | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2329-6488

Journal of Alcoholism & Drug Dependence
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Research Article

Driving, Opioid-maintenance, and Co-medications: A Comprehensive Assessment of 22 Cases

Pekka Rapeli1-3, Pekka Kuikka4, Hanna Sillanpää5, Carola Fabritius6, Kaarlo Simojoki7, Hely Kalska3, Pirjo Lillsunde8 and Hannu Alho2,9*

1Unit for Drug Dependence, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland

2Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland

3Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland

4Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland

5Medical School, University of Eastern Finland. Kuopio, Finland

6Social Services and Health Department, City of Helsinki, Finland

7A Clinic Foundation, Metropolitan region, Espoo A-clininic and Rehabilitation Center, Finland

8Injury Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

9Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland

*Corresponding Author:
Hannu Alho
National Institute for Health and Welfare
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services
PO 30, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 22, 2013; Accepted Date: March 16, 2013; Published Date: March 19, 2013

Citation: Rapeli P, Kuikka P, Sillanpää H, Fabritius C, Simojoki K, et al. (2013) Driving, Opioid-maintenance, and Co-medications: A Comprehensive Assessment of 22 Cases. J Alcoholism Drug Depend 1:113. doi:10.4172/2329-6488-1000113

Copyright: © 2013 Rapeli P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Introduction: Patients in stable Opioid Maintenance Treatment (OMT) for opioid-dependence are, as a rule, considered fit to drive a car. Polypharmacotherapy, however, is common in opioid-dependent patients, and its association with driving fitness is not well known. Therefore, we examined driving fitness of 22 OMT patients of whom the majority were multidrug-treated patients.

Material and methods: The assessment included a standard on-road driving test, clinical neurological examination, and cognitive driving-related tests. The OMT patients were grouped on the basis of their psychoactive medications into two groups. The first group was considered to have a low probability for drug-related driving impairment (n=10). This group included patients treated with opioid agonist alone or along with the second generation antidepressant or lithium. The second group included patients with probable drug-related driving impairment (n=12). All patients in this group were given at least one benzodiazepine (BZD) drug,

Results: In neurological evaluation all OMT patients met the basic requirements for driving. In the driving test, all patients in the group with ‘improbable drug-related driving impairment’ and all except one in the group with ‘probable drug-related driving impairment’ were found fit to drive. However, in the driving test total score and two driving-related cognitive tests, the group with ‘probable drug-related driving impairment’ scored significantly lower than the improbable group (p=0.021, 0.001, and 0.028, respectively). Two cases with ‘probable drug-related driving impairment’ are described in detail.

Conclusions: The results of this case series give support for the notion that OMT patients in stable treatment, in general, are fit to drive. When assessing the driving fitness of individual OMT patients with polypharmacy, combining pharmacological and non-pharmacological information is essential, as shown by two case descriptions.


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