Drug Tampering and Abuse Deterrence
Hossein Omidian* and David J Mastropietro
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Hossein Omidian
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University
3200 South University Drive
Fort Lauderdale, FL, 33314, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 28, 2014; Accepted date: May 30, 2014; Published date: June 03, 2014
Citation: Mastropietro DJ, Omidian H (2014) Drug Tampering and Abuse Deterrence. J Develop Drugs 3:119. doi: 10.4172/2329-6631.1000119
Copyright: © 2014 Mastropietro DJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
There has been a growing response from governments, industries, and academic institutions to address the worldwide incidence of prescription drug abuse. These organizations have addressed this prominent public health concern in different ways. One crucial step has been research and development into developing medications that are considerably more resistant to abuse. These novel medications prevent or discourage abuse and tampering, and consequently referred to most often as abuse-deterrent or tamper-resistant formulations. While prescription drugs used to treat insomnia, anxiety, and behavioral disorders are commonly abused, prescription opioids are most significant. Attempts to produce more rapid “high” or euphoria have resulted in various tampering techniques by abusers. Swallowing multiple dosage forms at once, either intact or crushed (chewed), is relatively considered the most common form of tampering, followed by nasal insufflation and injection. However, the prevalent route used can greatly depend on the drug or dosage form. The simultaneous use of prescription opioids with alcohol has also become a dangerous form of tampering that can lead to serious adverse effects and even death. The objective of this paper is therefore to provide a summary of the types of tampering commonly performed during abuse of prescription drugs that can be useful in developing dosage forms more resistant to multiple forms of abuse.