alexa Early Radiofrequency Ablation for Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion TRAP) Sequence: Case Report and Literature Review
ISSN: 2161-0932

Gynecology & Obstetrics
Open Access

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Case Report

Early Radiofrequency Ablation for Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion TRAP) Sequence: Case Report and Literature Review

Kara Aitken1, James Andrews2, Tim Van Mieghem1, Rory Windrim1, John Kachura1 and Greg Ryan2*

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Saint John Regional Hospital, Dalhousie University, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

2Fetal Medicine Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

*Corresponding Author:
Greg Ryan
Fetal Medicine Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Tel: 14165868415
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: June 19, 2014; Accepted date: August 31, 2014; Published date: September 05, 2014

Citation: Aitken K, Andrews J, Mieghem TV, Windrim R, Kachura J, et al. (2014) Early Radiofrequency Ablation for Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) Sequence: Case Report and Literature Review. Gynecol Obstet (Sunnyvale) 4: 239. doi: 10.4172/2161-0932.1000239

Copyright: © 2014 Aitken K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Background: High output cardiac failure resulting in fetal death or severe prematurity is a common complication of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence. Various minimally invasive prenatal interventions have been proposed to improve outcomes for the pump fetus. Uncertainty still exists regarding the optimal timing of these interventions. Early intervention may protect the pump twin against prematurity from complications of cardiac failure or unexpected fetal death, although it carries a risk of procedure related pregnancy loss. Expectant management with surveillance and performing an intervention later in gestation if necessary’ would potentially avoid some procedures but does not protect against unexpected fetal death.

Case: A healthy 30 year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1, was diagnosed with TRAP sequence at 13+1 weeks gestation. An uncomplicated ultrasound guided Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) procedure ablating the vessels in the parasitic mass was performed at 15+0 weeks. The remainder of the pregnancy was uneventful and resulted in a term vaginal delivery of a healthy infant.

Conclusion: Based on our current knowledge of TRAP sequence and current instrumentation for fetal surgery, early occlusion of the vessels perfusing an acardiac fetus appears feasible and safe. Randomized trials on timing of intervention are urgently needed.


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