alexa Ecotoxicity Potentials of Residual Paracetamol and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) in Household Waste at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
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Research Article

Ecotoxicity Potentials of Residual Paracetamol and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) in Household Waste at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Babatunde BB1*, Kika PE1, Ugoeze KC2, Nwanchukwu N2, Sikoki FD1 and Udeala OK2
1Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Corresponding Author : Babatunde BB
Department of Animal and Environmental Biology
University of Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Tel: +2348060755192
Received October 20, 2015; Accepted November 27, 2015; Published November 30, 2015
Citation: Babatunde BB, Kika PE, Ugoeze KC, Nwanchukwu N, Sikoki FD et al. (2015) Ecotoxicity Potentials of Residual Paracetamol and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) in Household Waste at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5:339. doi:10.4172/2161-0525.1000339
Copyright: © 2015 Babatunde BB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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This study evaluated the relative amount of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) and paracetamol residues contained in household waste at the University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Residual paracetamol was analysed using a 6405 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer at the maximum wavelength (245 nm) in 0.1 N HCL. Student hostels had a mean paracetamol concentration of 0.6702 ± 0.006 mg/kg while the staff quarters recorded a mean concentration of 0.6569 ± 0.002 mg/kg. Solid waste analysis recorded 0.9 kg/capita/day and 1.1 kg/capita/day for the student hostel and staff quarters respectively. The student’s hostel recorded a mean percentage PPCPs value of 52.9% which was higher than that obtained in the staff quarters (45.9%) indicating that students disposed of more drugs in their waste than does the staff. The study showed that considerable amounts of PPCPs are disposed of in household waste at the study location and household waste is thus a viable pathway of PPCPs into the environment. Such practices could lead to the occurrence of the active ingredients of PPCPs in the environment with the potential to contaminate surface and ground water posing serious risk to human and ecologic health. It was recommended that appropriate return channels be established specially as a route for disposing of unused or expired drugs. Such routes should encourage stewardship of drugs by manufacturers from cradle to grave in an integrated green pharmacy approach.


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