Effect of Chamomile Extract on the Tongue of Chemotherapy Treated Albino Rats (Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study)
|Ali Sultan Al-Refai1, Othman A. Omar1 and Ameera Kamal Khalil2*|
|1Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan|
|2Department of Oral Diagnosis, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan|
|Corresponding Author :||Dr. Ameera Kamal Khalil (B.D.S., M.Sc. Oral Pathology)
Department of Oral Diagnosis
College of Dentistry
Hawler Medical University
Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: May 21, 2014; Accepted: August 15, 2014; Published: August 25, 2014|
|Citation: Al-Refai AS, Omar OA, Khalil AK (2014) Effect of Chamomile Extract on the Tongue of Chemotherapy Treated Albino Rats (Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study). J Clin Cell Immunol 5:251. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000251|
|Copyright: © 2014 Al-Refai AS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background and objectives: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a commonly used drug for the treatment of malignant cancers. The control of oral mucositis result from 5-FU use is becoming increasingly more important, and effective intervention is considered a high priority in cancer patient care. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chamomile extract on the pathogenesis of 5-FU induced tongue mucositis in Albino rat.
Materials and methods: In current study forty female Albino rats, weighing 220-280 g were used. For the induction of mucositis, 60 mg/kg of 5-FU was administered intraperitoneally to each animal in the study group on day 0, and 40 mg/kg was administered on day 2. The control animals were intraperitoneally injected by normal saline in the same manner and dose like 5-FU on day 0 and 2. Then the rats in each group were randomly divided into two groups: Distilled water treated group and chamomile extract treated group (10 animals each).
A volume of distilled water equal to chamomile extract was given by intragastric gavage tube, while the other group was gavaged with chamomile extract at a dose of (100 mg/ kg) two times daily. The treatment with distilled water or the chamomile extract was initiated on day 5 and the experiment continues for twelve days. The animals were sacrificed on day 8 and 12 (five animals each). In each experiment, the middle third of the tongue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis using Ki-67 and Bcl-2 immunolabeling.
Results: Chamomile can protect the tongue from fluorouracil-induced cytotoxicity and attenuate or decrease the associated injury. The chamomile in 5-FU+chamomile group causes significant increase in Ki-67 and Bcl-2 immunoexpression in comparison with 5-FU+water group at day eight. But longer duration of taking chamomile can cause cytotoxic and damaging effect to the tongue mucosa.
Conclusion: Chamomile can protect the tongue mucosa from fluorouracil-induced mucositis. It attenuate the associated injury if it taken for short duration, but the reverse was occurred if it taken for longer period.