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ISSN: 2155-6156

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism
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Review Article

Effect of Diet versus Diet and Exercise on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Class II and III Obesity: A Systematic Review

Clint T Miller1, Steve F Fraser1, Nora E Straznicky2, John B Dixon3, Steve E Selig1 and Itamar Levinger4*

1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Australia

2Human Neurotransmitters Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Australia

3Vascular Hypertension and Obesity Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Australia

4Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), College of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria University, Australia

*Corresponding Author:
Itamar Levinger
Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL)
College of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria University
PO Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
Tel: (61-3) 9919 5343
Fax: (61-3) 9919 5532
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: July 09, 2013; Accepted date: August 13, 2013; Published date: August 17, 2013

Citation: Miller CT, Fraser SF, Straznicky NE, Dixon JB, Selig SE, et al. (2013) Effect of Diet versus Diet and Exercise on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Class II and III Obesity: A Systematic Review. J Diabetes Metab 4:281. doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000281

Copyright: © 2013 Miller CT, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Class II and III obesity (BMI >35 kg·m2) have increased dramatically in recent years. Current clinical guidelines suggest diet and exercise as first line treatment for adults throughout the spectrum of overweight and obesity. However, to date there is no systematic review that examines the effects of diet and exercise on this high risk population. This systematic review will examine the combined effects of diet versus diet and exercise on body composition in severe obesity. Medline and Cinahl were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing diet and exercise to diet alone. Studies published until July 2013 were included if they used reliable methods for analysing body composition in adults with BMI ≥ 35 kg·m2. Five of 459 studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies, both in older adults, reported that exercise reduced lean mass loss during weight loss. Two studies showed that exercise facilitated (greater) fat mass loss. The remaining study reported no differences in body composition when exercise is added to energy restriction. Exercise training during energy restriction for individuals with BMI ≥35 kg.m2 may influence body composition outcomes but the evidence is limited. Further studies should focus on the efficacy of different exercise protocols during energy restriction for this population in order to better inform decision making for the treatment of severe obesity in respect to favourable body composition outcomes.

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