Effect of GSTM1-Polymorphism on Disease Progression and Oxidative Stress in HIV Infection: Modulation by HIV/HCV Co-Infection and Alcohol Consumption
- *Corresponding Author:
- Marianna K Baum
Florida International University
R. Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work
11200 SW 8th Street
Room AHC-1-337, Miami, Florida 33199
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 29, 2013; Accepted Date: August 28, 2013; Published Date: August 31, 2013
Citation: Parsons M, Campa A, Lai S, Li Y, Martinez JD, et al. (2013) Effect of GSTM1-Polymorphism on Disease Progression and Oxidative Stress in HIV Infection: Modulation by HIV/HCV Co-Infection and Alcohol Consumption. J AIDS Clin Res 4:237. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000237
Copyright: © 2013 Parsons M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: To examine the effects of GSTM1 null-allele polymorphism on oxidative stress and disease progression in HIV infected and HIV/hepatitis C (HCV) co-infected adults.
Methods: HIV-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected participants aged 40-60 years old with CD4 cell count >350 cells/ μl, were recruited. GSTM1 genotype was determined by quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress (mitochondrial 8-oxo-2’- deoxyguanosine [8-oxo-dG], malondialdehyde [MDA], oxidized glutathione and Complexes I and IV), apoptosis and HIV disease (CD4 count and viral load) markers were measured. Gene copies were not quantified, thus the Hardy- Weinberg formula was not applicable.
Results: Of the 129 HIV-infected participants, 58 were HIV/HCV co-infected. GSTM1 occurred in 66% (62/94) in those of African descent, and 33% (11/33) of the Caucasians. Those with GSTM1 coding for the functional antioxidant enzyme Glutathione S-transferase (GST), had higher CD4 cell count (β=3.48, p=0.034), lower HIV viral load (β=-0.536, p=0.018), and lower mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG (β=-0.28, p=0.03). ART reduced oxidative stress in the participants with the GSTM1 coding for the functional antioxidant enzyme. HIV/HCV co-infected participants with the GSTM1 coding for the functional antioxidant enzyme also had lower HIV viral load, lower 8-oxo-dG and lower rate of apoptosis, but also higher oxidized glutathione. Alcohol consumption was associated with lower HIV viral load but higher oxidized glutathione in those with the GSTM1 genotype coding for the functional antioxidant enzyme.
Conclusion: The GSTM1 genotype coding for the functional antioxidant enzyme is associated with lower HIV disease severity, and with lower oxidative stress, compared to GSTM1 null-allele polymorphism. HCV co-infection and alcohol use may be associated with increased oxidative stress even in the presence of the GSTM1 coding for the functional antioxidant enzyme. The null-gene, on the contrary, appears to have a detrimental effect on immune function, viral load control, and antioxidant status, suggesting a potential benefit from antioxidants in HIV infected patients with the defective gene.