Effect of Vildagliptin, Compared to Sitagliptin, on the Onset of Hyperglycemia-Induced Metabolic Memory in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial CellsLa Sala L1, Genovese S2 and Ceriello A1-3*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Antonio Ceriello
Department of Cardiovascular Research
IRCCS MultiMedica, Via Milanese
300 Sesto San Giovanni (MI), Milan, Italy
Tel: +39 02 55406587
Fax: +39 02 55406503
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: December 15, 2016; Accepted Date: January 10, 2017; Published Date: January 17, 2017
Citation: Sala LL, Genovese S, Ceriello A (2017) Effect of Vildagliptin, Compared to Sitagliptin, on the Onset of Hyperglycemia-Induced Metabolic Memory in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Cardiovasc Pharm Open Access 6:203. doi: 10.4172/2329-6607.1000203
Copyright: © 2017 Sala LL, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Metabolic memory, the long-term effect of poor glycemic control in the initial stages of diabetes, leads to vascular complications that negatively affect patients’ outcome. As oxidative stress plays a major role in metabolic memory onset, the use of drugs with antioxidant properties may be clinically beneficial.
Objectives: To test the effects of two dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, vildagliptin and sitagliptin, on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).
Methods: HUVECs were treated with 5 nM vildagliptin or sitagliptin for 1 h, after 21 days of culture under conditions of continuous normal or high glucose (NG and HG, respectively), Oscillating Glucose (OG) or HG/OG memory (HM and OM, respectively). The effects of the two drugs on the following markers of oxidative stress were tested by different techniques: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine, 3-nitrotyrosine, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) mRNA and PKC-β protein. Moreover, the levels of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic) and BAX (pro-apoptotic) transcripts and of caspase-3 protein were assayed.
Results: In HUVECs, vildagliptin was able to significantly counteract the oxidative stress triggered by OG, HG and memory conditions, as measured by the levels of ROS, DNA and protein damage markers, TXNIP and PKC-β. Also, a significant increase of BCL-2 and decrease of BAX mRNA levels was observed upon OG and HG. Sitagliptin exerted a less evident effect. No significant effect on caspase-3 levels was detected by either drug.
Conclusions: Our findings point toward antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties of vildagliptin in HUVECs exposed to HG, OG and metabolic memory conditions, whereas the effects of sitagliptin were less prominent. If these results on the vascular protective effects of vildagliptin will be confirmed, its use may be implemented in the setting of diabetes to prevent the onset of metabolic memory.