Effects of Green Tea in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease
Periodontium comprises of investing and supporting structures of the teeth namely Gingiva, Periodontal ligament, Cementum and Alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. Micro organisms present in the dental plaque are considered as the primary etiological agent for periodontal diseases. Dental plaque contains anaerobic organisms such as Porpyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum. They liberate endotoxins which are harmful to the host tissues. The Lipopolysaccharide layer of these bacteria can trigger hyper inflammatory response. Toxins liberated from the bacteria stimulate inflammatory reaction in hyper responsive manner. During this process, destructive enzymes such as collagenases are liberated from host cells and affected tissues also trigger the release of Prostaglandins. This leads to osteoclast activation and bone loss. To arrest the inflammation, eradicate microbes, and to control the free radicals various treatment strategies have been tried. One of the strategy is use of green tea since it has anti bacterial, antioxidant effect etc. Greeen tea is derived from the dried leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Green tea is usually available in the form of beverage, mouth wash containing extract of green tea, and as a chewing gum. Green tea catching can be affected by various factors like type of green tea leaves , type of processing before drying, growing conditions and the geographic conditions. This paper reviews the effect of green tea in the periodontal disease.