Effects of Prenatal Opiates Exposure on Human Pregnancy and BreastfeedingAntoine Malek*
University Hospital Zurich, Department of Obstetrics, Research Division, Frauenklinikstr 10, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Antoine Malek
University Hospital Zurich, Department of Obstetrics
Research Division, Frauenklinikstr 10
8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Tel: +41-044-255 51 48
Fax: +41-044-255 90 66
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 15, 2012; Accepted date: November 28, 2012; Published date: November 30, 2012
Citation: Malek A (2012) Effects of Prenatal Opiates Exposure on Human Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. Pharmaceut Anal Acta 3:192. doi: 10.4172/2153-2435.1000192
Copyright: © 2012 Malek A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Opiates like heroin, morphine and their semisynthetic and synthetic analogs act to relieve pain, as well as produce tolerance and physical dependence, by mimicking the various endogenous opioids and by binding to an opioid receptor. Substance use (alcohol, nicotine and illegal drugs including opiates/opioids) and substance use disorders are not uncommon amongst women of reproductive age and during pregnancy. Opioids include naturally occurring, semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs which are used as analgesics; and prescription use of this class of drugs increases during pregnancy over the past decade. Opiates like heroin and methadone are the most commonly used forms by pregnant women. The synthetic opiates such as methadone and buprenorphine are used as substitution therapy for the abused drug like heroin. This class of drugs is both transported to the fetus and alters the placental function. This review summarizes the impact of opiates on the human pregnancy and breastfeeding.