alexa Embryonic Stem Cells: A Perfect Tool for Studying Mammalian Transcriptional Enhancers | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2157-7633

Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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Review Article

Embryonic Stem Cells: A Perfect Tool for Studying Mammalian Transcriptional Enhancers

Sridhar Rao1,2*

1Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin, USA

2Departments of Pediatrics, and Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, USA

Corresponding Author:
Sridhar Rao
Blood Research Institute
Blood Center of Wisconsin, USA
Tel: 414-937-3841
Fax: 414-937-6284
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 29, 2012; Accepted Date: July 03, 2012; Published Date: July 05, 2012

Citation: Sridhar Rao (2012) Embryonic Stem Cells: A Perfect Tool for Studying Mammalian Transcriptional Enhancers. J Stem Cell Res Ther S10:007. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.S10-007

Copyright: © 2012 Sridhar Rao. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Transcriptional enhancers are DNA elements capable of regulating gene expression in-cis over great distances. With the recent availability of genomic approaches to define epigenetic marks and RNA levels, these previously difficult to study elements are now being extensively examined for their critical role in lineage-specific transcriptional regulation. This review sets out to highlight the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the study of enhancers, emphasizing that ESC have become an ideal model system for questions regarding mammalian transcriptional regulation. This review highlights the epigenetic “signature” of enhancers, their mechanism of action, and the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) on enhancer function. We briefly review insulators, a sub-type of enhancers, and a novel model system for studying enhancer function in vivo. We conclude with some ongoing questions within the field.

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