Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes
Modar Kassan, Maria Galán, Soo-Kyoung Choi and Khalid Matrougui*
Department of Physiology, Hypertension and Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University, 1430 Tulane Ave, New Orleans LA-70112, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Khalid Matrougui, PhD
Department of Physiology
Center of Excellence for Hypertension and Renal
Tulane University, 1430 Tulane Ave New Orleans LA-70112, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: October 28, 2011; Accepted date: November 30, 2011; Published date: December 15, 2011
Citation: Kassan M, Galán M, Choi SK, Matrougui K (2011) Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab 2:108e doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000108e
Copyright: © 2011 Kassan M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, due to deficiency in insulin or insulin resistance, and represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in contemporary societies [1,2]. According to the world health organization (WHO), more than 285 million people worldwide suffered from diabetes of which 4 million died in 2010. The prevalence is expected to enhance to 380 million by 2030. Genetic and environmental factors associated with life style such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and tobacco, and obesity contribute to the increasing incidence of diabetes. The situation becomes extremely critical since type 1 and type 2 diabetes compromise the cardiovascular homeostasis. Based on the report of WHO and clinical studies, the direct cause of death for 80 % of diabetic patients is cardiovascular diseases. Studies in human and experimental diabetic animal models have reported vascular dysfunction and structural arterial wall remodeling [3-5]. It is well known that endothelial dysfunction is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases [6,7]. Several hypothesis and mechanisms documented the relationship between diabetes and microvascular endothelial dysfunction [8,9], which include reduced endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) release and bioavailability, and enhanced endothelium-derived constricting factors release associated with augmented oxidative stress levels. Despite treatments have progressed, the development of novel effective treatments for patients with vascular complications in diabetes remains a major research goal.